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Manganese مینگانیز / مینگنیز

English NameManganese
No name in Urduعمل انگیز(اُردو)۔مَنغَنیز(عربی)۔مِنگنِز(فارسی)۔مینگانِیز(پنجابی/اُردو)۔
Element GroupAlkaline Earth Metals(Hameedi)
Chemical SymbolsMn

Description

تفصیل

Manganese (mang-gə- neez) is a chemical element, designated by the symbol "Mn". It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode (electron acceptor) material in standard and alkaline disposable dry cells and batteries. Manganese(II) ions function as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals. The element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater activity by inhalation, manganese can cause a poisoning syndrome in mammals, with neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible. Manganese is a silvery-gray metal resembling iron. It is hard and very brittle, difficult to fuse, but easy to oxidize.Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic. The most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6 and +7, though oxidation states from −3 to +7 are observed. Mn2+ often competes with Mg2+ in biological systems. Manganese compounds where manganese is in oxidation state +7, which are restricted to the unstable oxide Mn2O7 and compounds of the intensely purple permanganate anion MnO4−, are powerful oxidizing agents.Compounds with oxidation states +5 (blue) and +6 (green) are strong oxidizing agents and are vulnerable to disproportionation. The origin of the name manganese is complex. In ancient times, two black minerals from Magnesia in what is now modern Greece were both called magnes, but were thought to differ in gender. The male magnes attracted iron, and was the iron ore we now know as lodestone or magnetite, and which probably gave us the term magnet. The female magnes ore did not attract iron, but was used to decolorize glass. This feminine magnes was later called magnesia, known now in modern times as pyrolusite or manganese dioxide. Neither this mineral nor manganese itself is magnetic. In the 16th century, manganese dioxide was called manganesum (note the two n's instead of one) by glassmakers, possibly as a corruption and concatenation of two words, since alchemists and glassmakers eventually had to differentiate a magnesia negra (the black ore) from magnesia alba (a white ore, also from Magnesia, also useful in glassmaking). Michele Mercati called magnesia negra Manganesa, and finally the metal isolated from it became known as manganese (German: Mangan). Several oxides of manganese, for example manganese dioxide, are abundant in nature and due to color these oxides have been used as since the Stone Age. The cave paintings in Gargas contain manganese as pigments and these cave paintings are 30,000 to 24,000 years old. Manganese makes up about 1000 ppm (0.1%) of the Earth's crust, making it the 12th most abundant element there.Soil contains 7– 9000 ppm of manganese with an average of 440 ppm.Seawater has only 10 ppm manganese and the atmosphere contains 0.01 µg/m3. Manganese occurs principally as pyrolusite (MnO2), braunite, (Mn2+Mn3+6)(SiO12), psilomelane (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10, and to a lesser extent as rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Among a variety of other uses, manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel formulations. References: ^ Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Mangan" (in German). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1110– 1117. ISBN 3-11-007511-3. ^ Lide, David R. (2004). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC press. ISBN 0849304857. ^ Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3–128. Bibcode 2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. ^ Schaefer, Jeorg; et. al (2006). "Terrestrial manganese-53 — A new monitor of Earth surface processes". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 251 (3–4): 334–345. Bibcode 2006E&PSL.251..334S. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.016. ^ Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey and Overton, Tina Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, 2003. p. 491 ISBN 0716746204. ^ Schmidt, Max (1968). "VII. Nebengruppe" (in German). Anorganische Chemie II.. Wissenschaftsverlag. pp. 100–109. ^ Temple, R. B.; Thickett, G. W. (1972). "The formation of manganese(v) in molten sodium nitrite". Australian Journal of Chemistry 25: 55. ^ Luft, J. H. (1956). "Permanganate – a new fixative for electron microscopy". Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 2 (6): 799–802. doi:10.1083/jcb.2.6.799. PMC 2224005. PMID 13398447. ^ Calvert, J.B. (2003-01-24). "Chromium and Manganese". Retrieved 2009-04-30. ^ Chalmin, Emilie; Menu, Michel; Vignaud, Colette (2003). "Analysis of rock art painting and technology of Palaeolithic painters". Measurement Science and Technology 14 (9): 1590–1597. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/14/9/310. ^ Chalmin, Y; Osuga, Y; Harada, M; Hirata, T; Koga, K; Morimoto, C; Hirota, Y; Yoshino, O et al.; Vignaud, C.; Salomon, H.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M. (2006). "Minerals discovered in paleolithic black pigments by transmission electron microscopy and micro-X- ray absorption near-edge structure". Applied Physics A 83 (12): 213–218. Bibcode 2006ApPhA..83..213C. doi:10.1007/s00339-006- 3510-7. PMID 16055459. ^ Sayre, E. V.; Smith, R. W. (1961). "Compositional Categories of Ancient Glass". Science 133 (3467): 1824–1826. Bibcode 1961Sci...133.1824S. doi:10.1126/science.133.3467.1824. PMID 17818999. ^ Mccray, W. Patrick (1998). "Glassmaking in renaissance Italy: The innovation of venetian cristallo". Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 50 (5): 14. Bibcode 1998JOM....50e..14M. doi:10.1007/s11837-998-0024-0. ^ Rancke-Madsen, E. (1975). "The Discovery of an Element". Centaurus 19 (4): 299–313. Bibcode 1975Cent...19..299R. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1975.tb00329.x. ^ Alessio, L; Campagna, M; Lucchini, R (2007). "From lead to manganese through mercury: mythology, science, and lessons for prevention". American journal of industrial medicine 50 (11): 779–787. doi:10.1002/ajim.20524. PMID 17918211. ^ Couper, J. (1837). "On the effects of black oxide of manganese when inhaled into the lungs". Br. Ann. Med. Pharm. 1: 41–42. ^ Olsen, Sverre E.; Tangstad, Merete; Lindstad, Tor (2007). "History of manganese". Production of Manganese Ferroalloys. Tapir Academic Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9788251921916. ^ Preisler, Eberhard (1980). "Moderne Verfahren der Großchemie: Braunstein" (in German). Chemie in unserer Zeit 14 (5): 137– 148. doi:10.1002/ciuz.19800140502. ^Emsley, John (2001). "Manganese". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 249–253. ISBN 0-19- 850340-7. ^ Bhattacharyya, P. K.; Dasgupta, Somnath; Fukuoka, M.; Roy Supriya (1984). "Geochemistry of braunite and associated phases in metamorphosed non-calcareous manganese ores of India". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 87 (1): 65–71. Bibcode 1984CoMP...87...65B. doi:10.1007/BF00371403

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